The Biofield

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Current medical science is just beginning to explore the electric nature of the human body. Zhang has called the biofield the “electromagnetic body” and described it to be a complex, ultraweak field of chaotic standing waves, a dissipative structure of electromagnetic fields that forms the energetic anatomic structures including the chakras and acupuncture meridians (Zhang, 1995, 1996).

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The biofield is a composition of various fields produced by ions, molecules, and cells which make a complex human system with immense electromagnetic capacities. The biofield generated by these charged particles condensed to create a body visible to the eye yet has electron clouds which extend into space interacting with the fields in its environment. Harold Saxton Burr and Filmer Northrop wrote the “Electrodynamic Theory of Life” in which they state:

“The microscopic physicochemical constituents do determine the character of the field. No one cognizant of modern physics and physiological chemistry can deny this. But this relation between field and particle is not, as traditional modern scientific theory has assumed, an asymmetrical or one-way relation. The field both determines and is determined by the particle (Burr and Northrup, 1935).”

They also state “The field also conditions the behavior of the particle.” This statement gives rise to the evidence that the electromagnetic environment in which a person lives could alter, reinforce, or destabilize the structure of the biofield and in turn create a physiological change within the body. This also gives credit to the expression of being a product of the environment. Making changes in the home, community, state or nation will change those who are living in those environments.

Copyright 2012 Meg Benedicte
Copyright 2012 Meg Benedicte

In Beverly Rubik’s paper The Biofield Hypothesis: Its Biophysical Basis and Role in Medicine, she describes the biofield below:

“This paper provides a scientific foundation for the biofield: the complex, extremely weak electromagnetic field of the organism hypothesized to involve electromagnetic bioinformation for regulating homeodynamics. The biofield is a useful construct consistent with bioelectromagnetics and the physics of nonlinear, dynamical, nonequilibrium living systems. It offers a unifying hypothesis to explain the interaction of objects or fields with the organism, and is especially useful toward understanding the scientific basis of energy medicine, including acupuncture, biofield therapies, bioelectromagnetic fields comprising the biofield as well as its holistic properties may account for the rapid, holistic effects of certain alternative and complementary medical interventions (Rubik, 2002).”

Even though medical science has been largely focused on the mechanical and chemical aspects of the body, especially for the last seven decades, there have been a number of researchers prior to and throughout this time period who have done extensive investigation into the electromagnetic body. However, the field of subtle energy research has been limited by the sensitivity of the technologies and their capability to detect minute changes in and around the body. Advancements in technology are allowing the biofield to be explored like never before.

What is understood so far is that the biofield is composed of a series of fields, electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields, as well as other yet undefined more subtle energies. The properties of these fields and how they relate to the physical anatomy and health of the body will be discussed here, as well as, technologies and methods used to measure varying aspects of the biofield.

Electric Fields


An electric field is region of space surrounding charged particles and is defined by the electric force per charge unit. Due to charge distribution, the electric field lines start from one point and end at another. The electric field moves away from the positive charge and moves towards a negative charge point, so the positive charge is repellant and the negative charge is attractive.

Electric Field.png

Electric fields alter molecular and atomic configurations in dielectric substances. All atoms polarize when placed in an electric field. (Adey, 1981) A corona discharge is created when air molecules are ionized due to high electrical discharge around an electrode which creates a region of plasma.

Plasma discharge generated by electrifying air molecules
Plasma discharge generated by electrifying air molecules

The video below is from Richard Hammond’s series called Invisible Worlds where they film the corona discharge on a high voltage power line and its interaction with a helicopter. It explains this process in more detail.

The flow of electricity in the body is created by the flow of electrically charged particles called ions. In the case of the human body, these ions are usually calcium, potassium, sodium or magnesium which flow in and out of the body’s cells due to various stimuli (i.e. touch, sound). These currents begin at conception and seem to guide development and differentiation in the cells of a growing fetus (Maleskey, 1985).

Intramembranous proteins (IMPs) span the plasma membrane from outside to inside the cell. They have external protrusions into the fluid surrounding the cell with terminal glycoprotein strands that sense electric fields and form receptor sites for chemical stimuli. Inside the cell, they make contact with enzymes and the numerous fine tubules and filaments of the cytoskeleton.

It has been found that the role of the passive electrical properties of each tissue, interacting with the field to which it is exposed, impose certain highly specific changes in the energy characteristics to which an embedded cell will respond. These properties may change as disease alters the composition and structure of the tissue (Andrew and Bassett, 1993). There is evidence that strong direct current (DC) electric fields may increase bacterial mutation rates (Adey, 1981).


The electric field generated by specific organs, like the heart and the brain, have been studied by medical professionals using highly sensitive equipment. HeartMath Institute has found the heart’s electric field is approximately 60 times greater in amplitude than the electrical activity generated by the brain (McCraty, 2004). HeartMath co-founder, Howard Martin, explains how emotions play a role in altering the electric field of the heart in his article titled, Discover the Ultimate Power of Your Heart:

“The electrical energy produced by the heart radiates outside the body into space. The heart’s field is not static. It changes, depending on what we are feeling. For example, when we are feeling emotions like anger or frustration, the frequencies in the field become chaotic and disordered. On the other hand, when we are experiencing emotions like compassion, care, appreciation or love, the frequencies in the field become more ordered and coherent. In a sense, through the electromagnetic field created by the heart we are literally broadcasting our emotions like radio waves (Martin, 2009).”

This research gives validity to the feeling one gets when they can “sense the tension in the room” if two people had been arguing and the resulting chaotic field is tangibly felt. Communication is key. Absorbing and processing the information provided by the other person to respond neutrally is one way to communicate. Another way is to deflecting what the other person is communicating so information is not processed. This creates tension or resistance in the person avoiding input while the other does not feel heard or understood and cause frustration. Sometimes one person can stay grounded and neutral while the other person expresses themselves to release emotional charge out of their system. When your friend needs to “vent” then you can be a good listener and absorb and ground the charge they release.


In the 1960s, Robert Becker began studying regenerating and non-regenerating amphibians (salamanders and grassfrogs, respectively) with regard to the electrical activity at the stump after amputation, where he found the tip of a salamander’s limb becomes strongly negative, indicating a wound potential. Over the course of a day or so the tip reverses to a positive potential, then reverses again after a few days to a negative. The frog, on the other hand, displays only the first two stages of this process (Becker, 1960, 1961).


This led to further exploration of electric fields and their impact on the body which influenced Becker’s groundbreaking book The Body Electric, Electromagnetism and the Foundations of Life (Becker, 1976). Becker and his colleagues have produced remarkable stimulation of bone formation and healing in recalcitrant fractures by introducing low-current D.C. electrodes into the fracture site. They also report the induction of articular cartilage by similar means (Becker, 1961, Oschman, 2000). 


Electrical voltage changes have been measured and studied in healers who use their hands for healing. In studies of non-contact Therapeutic Touch, 6 out of 14 experienced practitioners had surges recorded of 4 to 221 volts (median = 8.3 volts) with durations ranging from 0.5 seconds to 12.5 seconds (median = 3.6 seconds). These surges increased in frequency during therapeutic sessions with a patient (Green, et al., 1991; Joines, et al). This research gives reason to encourage more studies into the electric field effects of healers and chi gong masters.

Image courtesy:
Image courtesy:

In William Adey’s 1981 paper titled Tissue Interactions with Nonionizing Electromagnetic Fields, he states:

“A body in an otherwise uniform electric field distorts the field so that electric gradients at the surface of the body are markedly increased. For humans in the erect position close to the ground in a vertically oriented field, this enhancement is maximal around the head. Thus the body presents an equivalent area at the head substantially larger than its physical cross section. This is associated with an increase in the displacement charge per unit area in the field surrounding the head. The capacitance to ground is maximized when the person stands on the ground and minimized when he is suspended far from the ground (Adey, 1981).”

Nimbus or halo depicted around Mary Magdalene’s head
Nimbus or halo depicted around Mary Magdalene’s head

The substantially larger electric field gradient at the head may be an attribute of the biofield which can be seen by clairvoyants and depicted in artwork as a halo or nimbus of charged light around the head.

Magnetic Field

Unlike electric fields, magnetic fields create closed loops instead of charge moving from one point to another.


Other than the magnetic field surrounding a magnet, magnetic fields can also be created by movement of electric charge. Ampere’s Law states that wherever there is an electric current, there is a magnetic field. A moving charged particle produces a magnetic field at right angles to its direction of motion.


Cells generate tiny electric currents as a result of charge flow and changes in membrane potential from stimuli and thus generate tiny magnetic fields in the surrounding space. Voltage-gated ion channels respond to the voltage difference between the inside and outside of the cell.


“Magnetic properties of matter can be traced to charge motion, whether over long distances, as in the flow of conduction electrons, or in charge motions close to or within an atom or molecule. Each orbital electron can be considered as providing its own magnetic moment of the atom. An orbital electron also possesses an intrinsic magnetic moment since it can be considered as a charge spinning about its axis. The nuclei of most atoms also have magnetic moments, which are about one-thousandth as large as the orbital and spin magnetic moments. The magnetic moment of an atom as a whole is the sum of the three moments. An imposed magnetic field tends to cause the magnetic loops within each atom and molecule to align with the imposed field. This paramagnetic effect of alignment in the presence of an external magnetic field is therefore greater at low temperatures. On the other hand, thermal motion tends to dis-align them (Adey, 1981, p.438).”

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a commonly used medical device which uses the body’s natural magnetic properties to produce detailed images from any part of the body. The hydrogen nucleus (single proton) is used for imaging purposes because of its abundance in water and fat. When the body is placed in an MRI scanner which produces a strong magnetic field, the protons’ axes all line up and create a magnetic vector oriented along the axis of the MRI scanner. The radiowave is sent in pulses and the response from the hydrogen nuclei are recorded providing an image. This device operates a distance from the body within the biofield.


The SQUID, or Superconducting Quantum Interference Device, is an extremely sensitive magnetometer, capable of measuring the biomagnetic field produced by a single heartbeat, muscle twitch, or pattern of neural activity in the brain. In 2004, Rolin McCraty presented research from the HeartMath Institute where they studied the magnetic field of the heart as compared to the brain. He states,

“… the magnetic field produced by the heart is more than 100 times greater in strength than the field generated by the brain, and can be detected a number of feet away from the body, in all directions, using the SQUID-based magnetometers (McCraty, 2004).”


The magnetic field generated by non-touch practitioners who heal within the biofield has been measured by highly sensitive gaussmeters which have a digital output and a resolution of 0.001 Gauss from DC to 20,000 Hz (Joines, W.T., et al.). With advancements in technology, the subtle energy involved between a healer and the person being treated is now being studied more in depth than ever before. The intention of thought to heal a person without physical contact is now a quickly growing area of research for its more gentle approach to regaining wellness


Magnetite biomineralization has been found in single and multicell organisms (Frankel, et al., 1979; Torres de Araujo, 1985), humans (Lowenstam, 1962; Gould, et al., 1978; Walcott, et al., 1979), and has been found in Precambrian fossil records (Chang and Kirschvink, 1989). Studies into the ferromagnetic properties of human brain tissue found a minimum of 5 million single domain crystals of biogenic magnetite per gram for most tissue in the brain with clumps of between 50 and 100 particles (Kirschvink, 1992). Researchers have found about 20% of pineal cells in pigeons, guinea pigs and rats respond to changes in both direction and intensity of the earth’s magnetic field (Semm, 1981, 1983). Migration may be influenced by exposure to changes in the Earth’s magnetic field.

Migration map across United States
Migration map across United States

Research into the biological effects of changes in the earth’s magnetic field have been going on for over 30 years. It has been found that experimental inversion of the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field significantly decreases synthesis and secretion of the pineal peptide hormone melatonin, which powerfully influences circadian rhythms and reduces activity in its synthesizing enzymes (Welker et al., 1983).

Electromagnetic Fields


In electromagnetic (EM) theory, it is well established that rapid movements of charge can become a source of electromagnetic radiation. (Plonus, 1978) Transmissions of radio, television, Wi-Fi, and smartmeters using antenna are based on this theory. The human body also communicates intercellularly through EM fields. William Adey studied the impact of extremely low frequencies electromagnetic fields on the physiological signaling across cell membranes. He states:

“However, much recent research has shown that imposed weak EM fields in the ELF spectrum below 100 Hz at intensities in the pericellular fluid many orders of magnitude weaker than the membrane potential gradient can modulate actions of hormone, antibody, neurotransmitter and cancer promoting molecules at their cell surface receptor sites. Similar sensitivities have been observed for radiofrequency fields that are amplitude-modulated at ELF frequencies. These modulating actions of EM fields suggest highly cooperative processes in the underlying physical mechanisms (Adey, 1987).”

Adey identified three groups of intracellular enzymes that respond to signals initiated at cell membranes as a response to EM field exposure. These enzymes are: 1) membrane-bound adenylate cyclase involved in activation of protein kinases through conversion of ATP to cAMP (Luben et al., 1982; Luben and Cain, 1984); 2) cAMP-independent protein kinases that perform messenger functions; and 3) ornithine decarboxylase, essential for growth in all cells by its participation in the synthesis of polyamines necessary for DNA formation. These responses were found to occur with or without concurrent interactions with humoral stimuli and all were calcium-dependent (Adey, 1987). Selective imposition of EM fields at radio and microwave frequencies is recognized as a unique tool in understanding aspects of molecular biology of normal and abnormal growth (Frolich, 1978; Grundler et al., 1977) , cell-mediated immune responses (Szmigielski et al., 1975), and in intrinsic processes of communication between brain cells (Adey, 1975).


The EM communication of various parts of the human body are now beginning to be explored. Berbari et al. found the primary cilium to be a complex signaling center as well stating that fluid movement through the tubules and mechanosensory activities of the cilium may have an important impact on cellular responses. In addition to responses induced by fluid shear stress, cilia have important functions in pressure, touch and vibration sensation (Berbari et al., 2009). In addition to receiving vibrational information, the cilium may also transmit information about the state of order or disorder within the cell.


In his book, The Biology of Belief, Dr. Bruce Lipton describes this process but extends the cellular activation to respond also to light and sound EM fields:

“Receptor antennas can also read vibrational energy fields such as light, sound, and radio frequencies. The antennas on the energy receptors vibrate like tuning forks. If an energy vibration in the environment resonates with a receptor’s antenna, it will alter the protein’s charge, causing the receptor to change shape. Because these receptors can read energy fields, the notion that only physical molecules can impact cell physiology is outmoded. Biological behavior can be controlled by invisible forces as well as it can be underpinning for pharmaceutical-free energy medicine (Lipton, 2005).”


In Candace Pert’s book Molecules of Emotion, she explains how internal biochemistry, the neuropeptides and receptors correlate as emotions, beliefs and expectations which influence how a person experiences and responds to the world.

“Your subconscious mind is really your body. Peptides are the biochemical correlate of emotion… They provide the body’s most basic communication network… This means that emotional memory is stored throughout the body… and you can access emotional memory anywhere throughout the network (Pert, 1996).”


A new branch of research has been created called psycho-neuro-immunology which studies the disease patterns expressed by psycho-neurological disturbances. For example, a stressful childhood has been shown to be a predictor for inflammation later in life (Danese et al., 2016). Studies have also shown that higher depression scores, higher C-reactive protein values and lower heart rate variability are independently and additively associated with Metabolic Syndrome (Chen, et al., 2016). You can search for more papers on

Altered electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been reported during and following prolonged exposure low-level sinusoidally and pulse modulated radio- and microwave fields (Servantie, et al., 1975; Bawin, et al., 1973; Takashima, et al., 1979). William Bise studied EEGs of volunteers exposed to radiofrequencies and microwaves. He found some volunteers’ EEG traces displayed desynchronization of alpha wave amplitude and slow waves appeared when a radio signal source was on (Bise, 1978). Also, there was a diminution and desynchronization of alpha wave amplitude, on the order of 20-50%, occurred at other radio frequency irradiations and slow waves of increased amplitude also appeared. Some of the actual EEG data captured in the study is shown below and the full paper can be found in the Additional Research page on this website.


Radio-wave sickness is a term Eastern European and Soviet researchers have applied to a group of clinical syndromes observed in persons who are exposed to electromagnetic fields in their work (Silverman, 1973; Sadcikova, 1974). Researchers have found that the hypothalamus, as well as, bacterial growth and development are affected by microwaves (Gordon, et al., 1974; Adey, 1981).

In William Adey’s paper entitled, Tissue Interactions with Non-Ionizing Fields, he goes on to discuss the geomagnetic fields of the earth:

“There is a continuous spectrum of natural environmental EM fields of terrestrial origin from DC to about 3 kHZ. Some change markedly with altered weather patterns. Others are related to the earth’s geomagnetic field. This is influenced by particle radiation reaching the ionosphere from solar flares during years of high sunspot activity in the 11-yr solar cycle. In fair weather, the steady atmospheric electric field is about 150 V/m but may increase to 10 kV/m in thunderstorms. (…) The earth’s magnetic field of 0.5 G may be increased several fold during these storms, particularly at high latitudes. There is a series of resonances in this background spectrum at frequencies between 8 and 32 Hz. These Schumann resonances arise as a cavity resonance between the earth’s surface and the concentric conducting shell of ionospheric particles at heights between 80 and 200 km (Adey, 1981).”

The Schuman resonance is known to be 7.83 Hz and its nickname is the heart beat of the planet. This frequency and its harmonics are responsible for helping maintain the rhythm of the body’s cycles. It is so important that it is played on space shuttles to help keep astronauts healthy while they are outside of the Earth’s ionosphere. The 7th, 8th and 11th harmonic of this frequency are used in Biofield Tuning which is discussed in more detail on this website.


Dr. Valerie Hunt conducted research using an electromagnetically shielded or “mu” room and found that when electromagnetism was removed from the room, people “went to pieces,” having emotional breakdowns for no particular internal reasons. When ambient electromagnetic energy was restored to the room, participants found themselves feeling fine again. This would imply that the presence of EM fields is necessary for the organism to maintain a sense of coherence and “togetherness” (Hunt, 1996).


Torsion Fields

Torsion fields is one of the names given to the more subtle aspects of the biofield. Torsion fields have also been referred to as orgone, od, tachyon, aether, Tesla waves, scalar waves, the zero point field and more. There is no agreed upon scientific consensus on these more subtle aspects of the biofield. Torsion fields are theorized to the mitigating medium for distance healing, which occurs instantaneously and which research has been shown that to be impossible to be transmitted through classic electromagnetic frequencies. Here is a one page abstract written by Horejev V.I., and Baburin L.A. titled the “Transfer of Information by Means of Physical Medium of Superweak (torsion) Fields (Telepathy Analog).”

Nuclear and astrophysicist Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher developed a Unified Field Theory in 1971 at the University of California at Berkeley in which she expanded Einstein’s field equation: E=mc^2 and added the torsion effects of the spin of the electron as well as time. Although the mass of the electron is small compared to the mass of the nucleus, it still plays an important role in the movement of the atom. The moon is much smaller than the Earth, yet its spin and rotation around the planet controls the ebb and flow of the ocean and keeps the planet in orbit. Rauscher understood the limitation of the 2D oscilloscope screens and rather than a sine wave going only up and down, she proposed that it could possibly be moving in a spiral motion due to the particular speed and phase angle of the electron’s rotation (Rauscher, 1971).


Infrared/Thermal Changes

Kinetic theory states that molecules are in constant motion, the velocity of which is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. The exact vibratory frequency of a molecule is determined by the strengths of the bonds involved and the mass of the component atoms. The frequency of a covalent bond, v_covalent, between two masses m1, and m2, can be calculated by the following equation:


where f represents the force constant proportional to the strength of the covalent bond and c is the speed of light (2.998e8m/s). The energy/frequency that characterizes the vibration of a particular bond is proportional to the bond dissociation energy. Transitory states between vibrational energies may be induced by absorption or release of infrared radiation. There is a direct correlation between the infrared spectrum and molecular bonding frequencies. In instances of covalent bonds, the greater the change in charge distribution, the stronger the absorption in the infrared spectrum. Also, bonds to hydrogen have higher frequencies due to its lower molecular mass.


Exothermic reactions, such as those involved in inflammation, release energy in the form of heat, light, or sound. These reactions result in higher entropy, negative heat flow (heat loss to environment), decrease in enthalpy and may occur spontaneously. Endothermic reactions, such as photosynthesis, require energy to exchange bonds. These reactions result in positive heat flow (into the reaction) and increase in enthalpy. Chemical reaction rates are roughly doubled with a 10⁰K increase in temperature, which means they are quadrupled at a 20⁰K increase.

Dental infection captured with Max76 Med-Hot camera
Dental infection captured with Max76 Med-Hot camera

Inflammatory proteins are involved in exothermic reactions and include interleukins, soluble vascular and intracellular adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1), plasma soluble selectins (e-selectin), and C-reactive protein (CRP). When the body initiates an inflammatory response, these proteins begin to react and produce heat as a byproduct. The body has a method of controlling this heat via preganglionic nerve fibers in conjunction with blood vessel dilation and production of sweat. These fibers innervate at the skin’s surface and hyperthermic patterns are observed using infrared red or thermal imaging calibrated to the normal human range. In hypothermic conditions, preganglionic fibers stimulate blood vessels to constrict and reduce blood flow to retain heat, such as instances of nerve damage, water retention, and redirected blood flow. The heat radiating from the body outside the visible spectrum is akin to the thermosphere of the earth and is considered a component of the biofield. Temperature plays a role in the weather surrounding the body and is one of the first measurements taken at doctor’s visits to determine if their patient has a fever.

Visible Light

The Emission Theory was proposed by Sir Isaac Newton which held that light is composed of minute particles emitted by the radiant body. The first reports of biophoton emissions were in 1922 by a Russian researcher named Alexander Gurwitsch who studied the weak ultraviolet photonic radiation emitted from onion roots (Gurwitsch, 1922). In the 1970s, German scientist Fritz Albert Popp and others throughout Europe began to investigate human biophotonic emissions (Popp, 2002). Other European scientists have furthered this study and found that biophotons appear to create a holographic, coherent electromagnetic field throughout the body that uses EM frequencies for instantaneous communication throughout the system (van Wijk, 1992; Tillbury, 1992). Additional research has shown that human tissues radiate in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (Rahn, 1936; Konev, et al, 1966).

Fingertip of a smoker releasing biophotons
Fingertip of a smoker releasing biophotons

In Dr. Claude Swanson’s book Life Force; the Scientific Basis, he defines biophotons as follows:

“Biophoton: In modern quantum theory, light occurs in small packets or particles of energy called photons. In living processes, certain specific types of photons are emitted and received primarily by the DNA, as well as a few large biomolecules. They serve as a function of communications, stimulation of biochemical reactions, and coordination within the body (Swanson, 2010).”

The work of British physicist Herbert Frohlich has pointed out that many biomolecules act as emitters and receivers of electromagnetic energy (as carried by biophotons) as well as vibrational energy (primary cilium), and in doing so, provide the frequency required to allow specific reactions within the cells. Since most of the emission and reception is thought to happen through DNA molecules, biophotons act in a synchronizing fashion throughout the organism. This phase synchronization plays a crucial role in cell communication and coordination. These signals may be carried through the acupuncture meridian system or the nadi system of the Vedas.

The human biofield might possibly interact with photons, ‘energy packets of light,’ sometimes called ‘subtle energy photons’. Ambient light interacts with the field both when the incident ray travels toward the object and when the reflected ray bounces off the object. There are two mechanisms in physics whereby electric and magnetic fields affect photons. The Faraday effect is defined as the rotation of polarized light in response to a magnetic field. The Kerr effect describes a change in refractive index of a material in response to an applied electric field. From analyzing these two statements, it is clear the biofield around the body may influence light. Light striking the physical body may be absorbed or reflected.

The speed of light is used in both quantum and astrophysics calculations as it has importance at both the atomic and cosmic level. Light has been shown to affect the body in many ways and is now used in medicine to treat the body. Dr. Seth Pancoast wrote Blue and Red Lights, or Light and its Rays as Medicine in 1877 with the more well-known Dr. Edwin D. Babbitt writing The Principles of Light and Color in 1878 which sparked research into the use of light as a treatment for disease.

Dinshah Ghadiali, a Zoroastrian immigrant to America, developed a system known as Spectro-Chrome Metry in 1920. He outlined the effects of shining various colored light onto the body. Green which is in the middle of the visible spectrum is used as a balancing color for the body to reach equilibrium. Interestingly, magenta is presented as the same wavelength as green but from the reverse direction or opposite polarity, scarlet as the reverse of turquoise and purple the reverse of lemon.


He believes the rainbow is actually a toroid and that scarlet, magenta and purple complete the traditional view of red to violet. Each color produces a specific response from the body. If an organ was underactive and needed stimulating, red was shone onto that area, red being the slowest wavelength of visible light. It is known as a “hot” color as it is closest to the infrared spectrum and the initiating color of visible light. If an organ was overactive and needed to calm, violet was used as it is a “cold” color and closer to the ultra-violet spectrum. Dinshah calculated the electromagnetic spectrum down into octaves and designated the highest octave (64th) as magnetism after Delta rays (cosmic rays) (Ghadiali, 2003).

In 1951, Russian scientist S.V. Krakov found the color red stimulated the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system while the color blue stimulated the parasympathetic portion. It was later confirmed by the research of Robert Gerard which demonstrated that the autonomic nervous system and visual cortex were significantly less aroused when stimulated by blue or white light than when stimulated by red light (Gerard, 1958).


Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. In 1965, Paul MgGuff, M.D. used ruby lasers to destroy tumors in both rats and humans (MgGuff, 1965). Photobiomodulation using low level laser stimulation began to be used in clinical practice 40 years ago and extensive research into cellular, tissue, and organ responses to various wavelengths of coherent light have been ongoing for over three decades. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells, for example, have shown an increase in proliferation rates and mitochondrial membrane potential after irradiation at 532 nm using a green laser (Anwer, 2012). The use of red or near-infrared light in a helmet has been studied to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has been injured to help treat brain disorders (Hamblin, 2016). Tiina Karu’s research into the cellular response to various colored lasers explores the potential to use coherent light to stimulate changes on the cellular level. Some of her research is available on ResearchGate and highly recommended.

Plasma and Bioplasma

Recent research has shown the electrical nature of the universe, which rather than being an empty vacuum is now seen as being filled with electrically charged plasma.

“Plasma is described as forming twisting filaments, cells, and sheaths. The sheaths are formed at the outer boundaries of the plasma field. They are called double layer (DL) sheaths, and have a higher electrical charge than the ambient plasma within the boundary defined by the sheath. When plasma in arc mode (like lightning, or a plasma welder) travels across distances in space, it forms helical twisting filaments called Birkeland currents that spiral around each other (Scott, 2006). “

Just as the sun is both a dense plasma and surrounded by a diffuse magnetic plasma which is bounded by a DL sheath (the heliosphere) and the earth is as well (the magnetosphere), so does the human body appear to also have its own atmosphere and outer boundary. Since the 1950s, Dr. Victor Inyushin at Kazakh University in Russia has also done extensive research in the biofield, or as he referred to it: the Human Energy Field. He suggests the existence of a bioplasmic energy field composed of ions, free protons, and free electrons. He suggests that the bioplasmic energy field is a fifth state of matter after 1) solids, 2) liquids, 3) gases and 4) plasma. Inyushin’s work shows that the bioplasmic particles are in constant motion and constantly renewed by chemical processes in the cells. There is a balance of positive and negative particles within the bioplasma that is relatively stable. A severe shift in the balance causes a change in the health of the patients or organism. Barbara Brennan, former NASA physicist and world-renowned energy healer, also refers to the human energy field as a “bioplasma”, and sees trauma as “frozen” or stuck energy within this bioplasmic medium (Brennan, 1988).

Atmospheric Layers of the Biofield

The layers of the Earth’s atmosphere change according to gas composition, pressure, and temperature as it expands into gravity-free space. As the Earth’s atmospheric layers are well proven, it is now time to explore the subtle changes in the layers of the human atmosphere as described in ancient writings. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, they mention the three energy fields associated with the physical body, the emotional body, and the spiritual body. It is widely recorded in Vedic texts that there are seven interpenetrating layers of the biofield: (1) Etheric body, (2) Astral body, (3) Mental body, (4) Causal body, (5) Celestial body, (6) Ketheric body and (7) the Soul. The Khore, of the esoteric literature of the Zoroastrian tradition, describes nine layers of the human body as outlined below.

The first layer of the human body is the densest physical layer known as the skeleton. All organs, systems, muscles, flesh and skin comprise the second layer. The third is also a physical layer, an etheric, fluid-like substance that flows in and out of the skin. This layer is considered part of the physical biofield and plays the important role of removing the etheric toxins from the body. Toxins and excess energy are expelled directly through the skin via perspiration and/or acupuncture points. They do not rely on an excretory system, like the kidney, bladder, and urinary tract for liquids, or the intestines and bowels for solids. The fourth layer is known as the aura. The gross outline of the body’s energy plexii or chakras is observed in this layer. The etheric field of the aura is the densest of all the energy bodies and is closely related to the physical. It is thought to extend up to 2 cm beyond the surface of the skin. The fifth layer represents life force carrying the physical gases, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc., as well as the vibrational currents. This is also known as the mental body. The sixth or astral layer carries the emotional desires and the most intimate thoughts, which are translated through the Soul. The seventh layer is the nine light-layered soul that nestles in the heart chakra and is ultimately responsible for all physical, biological and chemical functions. The eighth layer is the celestial body and the spiritual awareness of the Divine Universal Natural Laws. This is the Soul’s self-creating journey back to the Godhead and Stardom. The ninth layer, the Etheric body, is the spiritual connection of the Soul with the Godhead (Shroff, 1980).


Sound and biofield researcher, Eileen McKusick, M.A. has put forth the Biofield Anatomy Hypothesis based on her research that suggests that mind and memory are found in standing waves in the diffuse magnetic field that surrounds the body. She has found that specific memories appear to be stored in specific regions within this field, at a distance of up to five feet away from the body and sometimes more. McKusick postulates that traumatic memories produce incoherent oscillations with the biofield which can create dysfunction in the physical body, and she has been able to locate and modulate specific chaotic patterns related to specific incidences or time periods in people’s lives. McKusick theorizes that the standing waves of the biofield are held in place by a double layer plasma membrane at the outer boundary of the field, similar to a cell membrane and, as related to plasma physics, the magnetosphere of the earth and heliosphere of the sun. In her book, Tuning the Human Biofield, she shares her experience of finding a 4” zone and a 10” zone away from the body where with the tuning fork feels like it has hit denser energy or a high pressure system (McKusick, 2012) You can read more in the Biofield Tuning section of this website.

Dennis Milner, in his book the “Loom of Creation”, recounts his observations of distinct biofield layers with geometric shapes of bio-photonic emissions at differing levels which gives evidence of a subtle structure of light around the body (Milner and Smart, 1976). He used an electrographic technique similar to Kirlian photography and is noted for being a pioneer researcher in this field in the 1970s in London.


Vital energy is a concept that underlies several ancient and integrative healing techniques and is known by different names depending on cultural origin. In China vital energy is referred to as qi, in Ayurvedic medicine it is known as prana, it is called ki in Japanese medicine, and rooh in Unani. This energy surrounding the body is depicted in artwork around the world from different cultural and religious backgrounds on various mediums of paintings, wood carvings and metal and stone statues. This is also the energy used to move a chi detection device called the Egely Wheel. This video shows someone trying to disprove telekinesis but continued to show it as fact.

Acupuncture Points

The acupuncture points stimulate and release the flow of chi along the meridians. These points are known to be physical structures which have been stimulated, needled and monitored by millions throughout the world and have been fixed, stained, and viewed under microscopy (Langevin, 2002).

Subcutaneous tissue of acupuncture point: A) ultrasound scanning acoustic microscopy; B) fixed, embedded, sectioned and stained (Langevin, 2002)
Subcutaneous tissue of acupuncture point: A) ultrasound scanning acoustic microscopy; B) fixed, embedded, sectioned and stained (Langevin, 2002)

Robert Becker has measured increased DC electrical conductivity on acupuncture points with a difference of up to 70,000 Ohms between the skin’s resistance on an acupuncture point than on any another part of the skin surface (Becker, 1976). Galvanic skin response devices are often used to measure the electrical activity of acupuncture points to help assist in diagnosing the health status of a person. The apparatus for meridian identification (AMI) measures electrical activity at the Jing-Well acupuncture points located at the base of the fingers and toes (Tsushita and Motoyama, 2009). The electrodermal characteristics, conductance and polarization at these points are analyzed to determine pathology and overall wellbeing (Deadman, 1993).


In the Vedas they discuss marma and varma points which are also energetic points on the body which some are known to benefit a person’s wellbeing and some points can be detrimental to health. Some of the Chinese acupuncture points overlap with marma points, others are completely different.

Meridians/Nadis/Primo-Vascular System

In ancient Indian philosophy and Ayurvedic medicine, it is believed that in addition to the physical body there is a subtle body composed of various energetic anatomical structures, including the seven chakras, nadis (etheric channels), pranas, vayus, and koshas (yogic sheaths or bodies) (Leadbeater, 1927). In Traditional Chinese Medicine, they have mapped the meridian system in detail and have used it to increase health and wellness for thousands of years.


The Vedas in the Hindu tradition describe and map the nadi system which is a series of 72,000 channels used to analyze health and improve vitality.


Thin filaments referred to as Bonghan ducts were discovered by Bong Han Kim in North Korea then further studied by Professor Soh at Seoul University using modern dissection techniques. These tubules referred to as Bonghan ducts were later found in blood vessels (Lee, et al., 2004), the lymphatic system (Lee, et al., 2005) and on the surface of organs (Lee, et al., 2004b; Lee, et al., 2004c; Shin, 2005). According to B.H. Kim, during the embryonic developmental and evolutionary processes, the Bonghan system develops earlier than the blood or the nerve systems. After consultation, Professor Soh renamed the threadlike structure the Primo Vascular System (Stefanov, 2013; Soh, 2010). The primo vascular system could possibly explain the meridians and nadis referred to in ancient Chinese and Vedic literature. For more peer-reviewed research, please search primovascular system or bonghan duct on PubMed.

Bonghan duct inside blood vessel (Lee, et al., 2004)
Bonghan duct inside blood vessel (Lee, et al., 2004)
Bonghan duct inside lymphatic vessel (Lee, et al., 2005)
Bonghan duct inside lymphatic vessel (Lee, et al., 2005)

Research scientists in China and Germany have used infrared or thermal imaging and moxibustion, the application of heat to an acupuncture point, to capture images of thin lines of thermal activity along the associated meridian (Lan et al., 2016; Schlebusch, et al., 2005).

Moxibustion of stomach meridian (Schlebusch, et al., 2005)
Moxibustion of stomach meridian (Schlebusch, et al., 2005)
Moxibustion of gall bladder meridian (Schlebusch, et al., 2005)
Moxibustion of gall bladder meridian (Schlebusch, et al., 2005)

Chakras/Dan Tians/Nerve Plexus

In Chinese philosophy and medicine, there are three important energy centers called dan tians which store and emit qi from the taiji pole or the “center core” of the body (Johnson, 2000). The lower dan tian is situated in the lower abdomen and relates to the energy field of the physical body. The middle dan tian is located in the center of the chest and is associated with to the energy field of the emotional body surrounding the physical body. The third dan tian is located inside the middle of the head and relates the spiritual field of energy that surround the physical and emotional bodies.


The seven major chakras or energy centers are spinning vortices of energy along the midline of the body. The chakras spin at their own specific frequencies with the slowest spinning chakra at the base and the highest at the crown. The chakras are said to draw in energy from the universal energy field and then distribute it via the nadis (meridians/primo-vessels) of the etheric body to the cells of the physical body. The chakras are spinning vortices that open to absorb required solar and cosmic vibrations and to eliminate aetheric toxins. Each chakra or energy center therefore acts as a transponder. Their function is to transmute lower frequencies into higher frequencies and vice-versa. The Vedas are scientific manuals for the structure and function of the chakras and nadis (meridians). 


In human anatomy, the chakras correlate to areas where there are nerve plexus along the vagus nerve which runs along the midline of the body. Endocrine glands are also associated with the chakras. Thoughts, emotions, hormones all produces changes in electrical activity at the nerve plexi and alter the subtle atmosphere surrounding the human body. The seven major chakras are related to the seven major musical notes and the seven colors of the rainbow. The seven heavenly virtues and the seven deadly sins have also been speculated to relate to the chakras.


Biofield Detection

Lecher Antennae

Ernst Lecher is known as the pioneer of high frequency measurement and the mind behind lecher lines, a method for measuring the length and frequency of electric waves. The Lecher antenna is two parallel conductors which act as a transmission line on which you can detect very high and ultra-high frequency electromagnetic waves. This technology has the capacity to measure tiny fluctuations in the particle fields around all objects. The Lecher Antenna corresponds to a closed line with one of its ends emitting energy in response to what it is exposed to. The cursor bar can be adjusted to different emissions or frequencies and generates a wave motion when it meets a congruent signal or energetic match. This has been used to measure the ultra-high frequency EM waves generated by the human body to measure the depth and symmetry of the biofield (


Color Screens

In the early 1900s, Dr. Walter J. Kilner, a medical doctor at St. Thomas’s Hospital in London, developed color screens to allow him to observe three distinct layers of the biofield: the etheric layer or ethic double, extending less than one centimeter from the body and following its contour; the inner aura, “rudimentary structure, being striated;” and the outer aura, more diffuse than other layers. These color screens were thin glass cells containing colored coal-tar dicyanin dyes in alcohol. The operator would stare at a color screen in front of a bright light for 30 seconds or longer then look at a person standing in front of a black wall. The eyes become saturated to that color, and more sensitive to other colors including those in the near ultraviolet range. He also found people could produce rays which extend from it using the power of their will (Kilner, 1965).


Chakra Measurements

Dr. Valerie Hunt, a professor of Kinesiology at the University of California (UCLA), developed a method of detecting certain peaks of high frequency electrical impulses on the body’s surface in areas associated with the chakras using microvoltage sensors and canceling the 250 Hz pulse frequency of the motor nerves to reduce artifact. The resulting frequency spectrum of these signals showed patterns unexpected of white noise. She then expanded her research to include persons who claimed to be clairvoyant. They found correlations between the frequency patterns measured and the colors reported by the clairvoyants. In her book, The Infinite Mind, she gives further details and data reported from her research into the measurements of the chakras.


The sensors used in Hunt’s machine went off the market and the subtle detection system had to be made from scratch. It was re-engineered and presented to Kimberly Schipke, M.S. in 2014 as the Biofield Visualization Recorder. The system is sensitive enough to detect electric fields from other electronics in a laboratory, as well as, powerlines which requires researchers to study in more remote areas. Sensors are placed on either side of the chakra (shown below) to measure the microvoltage changes which may occur when a person directs their attention to these areas through meditation. An example of the display which features the graph of a nerve plexus’/chakra’s microvoltage reading is shown below.


Biomedical engineer, Kimberly Schipke, M.S. taking Biofield Recorder Visualization readings outside the World Peace Centre in Pune, India (Schipke, 2015).


Biofield Recorder Visualization output for microvoltage chakra measurements (Schipke, 2015). Image courtesy of Kimberly Schipke, M.S.

Tuning Forks

Sound has been used commonly in medicine to break up kidney stones by lithotripsy. The work of John Beaulieu has also shown that the single pure tones produced by tuning forks and Tibetan or crystal singing bowls causes the body to produce nitric oxide, which induces blood vessel dilation and a relaxation response in the body. (Salaman et al., 2002) Tuning forks can also be used to locate the outer boundary of the biofield in a similar way that the Lecher antennae or dowsing rods can. When inserted into a region of greater electric charge, they will produce a louder tone than when in a more diffuse region of the field. Tuning forks can be used like sonar to listen to and ping the space around the body to find areas of dissonance. The insertion of a coherent frequency into an incoherent area will cause the body to spontaneously “auto-tune” itself, often resulting in relaxation. (McKusick, 2012) Read more detail in the Biofield Tuning section of this website.


Infrared/Thermal Camera

Initially, thermal “imagers” were used in research, which only showed a temperature pattern but were not calibrated to measure specific temperatures. Recently, military-grade radiometric cameras which measure the absolute skin surface temperature have become available and are being used in research. Pixel resolution has also improved which provides high-definition, radiometric images to now be used in biofield research and to further validate the use of infrared imaging with quantitative thermal analysis.


Thermal imaging has become most recognized for its use in detecting physiological abnormalities in the breast. Over time a tumor outgrows the surrounding vasculature and requires a new blood supply. The neovascularization of breast tumors can be detected by medical thermal imaging years before it is visible on a mammogram. The high metabolic activity of the tumor can be monitored as the heat reaches the skin’s surface and produces a thermal asymmetry with linear vascular patterns. As there is no compression, it has been used for monitoring women with breast implants to monitor for body rejection, material fatigue or inflammation from infection.


It is a useful tool for studying therapies such as acupuncture or chi gong which work on the energetic level. Below is a progression of pictures of an acupuncture treatment for osteoarthritis in the knee. Pictures are taken before acupuncture and then over a span of 30 minutes demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment to both the practitioner and client.

ThermalKnee (2).jpg
Acupuncture treatment of osteoarthritis in the knee over a span of 30 minutes (Chandler, 2001) Images courtesy of Dr. Carol Chandler

The pictures below show the hands of a chi gong master before and after mentally intending to raise the chi (energy./heat) in the palms of her hands. This photo shows the power of focused thought and intention.

Thermal measurements of the hands of a chi gong master before and after intending to project chi or energy from the hands. One degree shift in temperature is considered significant in medical research (Schipke, 2013).
Thermal measurements of the hands of a chi gong master before and after intending to project chi or energy from the hands. One degree shift in temperature is considered significant in medical research (Schipke, 2013).

Kirlian Photography

Semyon Kirlian was a Russian electrician who found by accident that an object on a photographic plate subjected to a high-voltage electric field produced an image of the object with a coronal discharge or “colored halo.” Kirlian photography allows visualization of the plasma emissions from biological systems. Each sample is placed on the surface of a quartz plate, which is then stimulated with a high-voltage electric charge, which in turn stimulates the release of gas and biophotons via the dielectric effect. The electricity stimulates the body’s inner atmosphere similar to neon gas illuminating when electricity is introduced. If a person put their hand on the plate, an etheric emission would glow along the outline of the hands with varying degrees of density and fractality of biophotons. This technology has been used for product testing in industry to determine the quality and vibrancy of ingredients in order to optimize the energetic aspect of the final product prior to market.


Tri-Axial Meter

The Tri-Axial Meter detects changes in electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Sensitive versions have been used to monitor these invisible fields in homes, offices buildings or other areas where a person spends a lot of time. Old wiring and appliances can give off invisible fields which can affect people in various ways. If a person uses a microwave to heat food, then the Tri-Axial meter can measure the changes in the kitchen as a result of using the appliance. Microwaves can leak radiation which is invasive to the electromagnetic aspect of the body. The environment in which a person lives can be detrimental to their health. Wireless networks in apartment buildings often overlap floors and persons could log onto 20 different modems at one time means that there are 20 different electromagnetic radiations pulsing through a person’s body even when they are resting. These meters bring attention to these invisible areas in a person’s environment which then allows them to make educated decisions on whether to remove these invisible stressors or not.



The biofield is an exciting frontier of discovery that has endless research potential. Emerging research and cross-disciplinary collaboration is bringing greater understanding to the anatomy and physiology of the human biofield, and new technologies are being developed daily to investigate ever more subtle signals from the body. A new scientific consensus is beginning to emerge about our electrical nature. Biofield therapies and technologies hold promise for a more gentle and effective approach to supporting health.

“Physics trumps chemistry.” -Albert Einstein

“The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.” – Nikola Tesla


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